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Financial Dictionary - Central credit register of the Bank of Spain

Central credit register of the Bank of Spain

The CIRBE (Central Credit Register of the Banco de España) is a service that manages databases of loans, guarantees, credit and risks of financial institutions with their customers (natural and legal persons). This database is open to the entities stipulated in article 4.5 of Law 5/2019, meaning they have the right to access this information at any time. It is also accessible to all individuals (i.e. people can find out information on their name, but not on third parties) and is confidential.

This database includes customers with a loan or credit with the same entity in excess of 6,000 euros. It also includes those with indirect risk amounting to more than 60,000 euros. These customers are removed when they repay their debt. However, each customer's history remains available to any entity, without needing the customer's consent. This history may, of course, affect future lending decisions.

Is the CIRBE a kind of debtors' register?

No. The CIRBE provides information on people's accumulated risk, irrespective of whether they are up-to-date with their payment obligations. This is different to databases of non-performing loans (such as ASNEF), which report on people who are in arrears. The Banco de España is responsible for the CIRBE, and requires banks and entities to provide it with information on their customers. However, the databases of non-performing loans are not obliged to report to the Banco de España. The CIRBE collects information on all kinds of commercial transactions, whereas databases of non-performing loans only contain data on individuals who are in default.

What information does CIRBE contain?

The CIRBE issues two types of reports: an aggregate report provided to the holder and the entities, with aggregated data for each type of risk; i.e. the total amount, with a summary of the credit limits, types of guarantees and terms. And a detailed risk report on the transactions: the name of the entity involved, details of the debt and any additional risks. This report is only for the holder.

How do you request a CIRBE report?

Individuals can request reports online using the Banco de España's e-office. This requires a digital signature or electronic certificate. This can also be requested in person from the Banco de España's headquarters or by post. Find out more on the Banco de España website.

What happens if there are problems with the data?

Everyone has the right to correct inaccurate or incomplete personal data. You can do this through the entity that provided the information, or directly through the Banco de España's e-office, at its headquarters or by post. The CIRBE must correct any errors.